What are cookies

Cookies are small text strings sent to the user's device by the websites visited, usually to the browser, where they are stored and then sent back to the same websites on the User's subsequent visits. While browsing a site, the User may also receive cookies from different websites or web servers (so-called "third party" cookies), which may contain certain elements, such as images, maps, sounds, links to specific pages in other domains present on the website that the User is visiting.

Cookies are usually present in very large numbers in the User's browser, and sometimes even with very long temporal persistence. They are used for different purposes: to authenticate computers, to monitor sessions, to store information on specific configurations concerning users who access the server, etc.

Types of cookies

Cookies are divided into two main categories: "technical" cookies and "profiling" cookies.

Technical cookies

Technical cookies are used for the sole purpose of "carrying out the transmission of a communication over an electronic communications network, or insofar as this is strictly necessary to the provider of an information service explicitly requested by the subscriber or user to provide said service" (see article 122, paragraph 1 of the Code).

They are not used for any other purposes and are usually installed directly by the data controller or website manager. They can be grouped into navigation or session cookies, which ensure normal navigation and use of the website (allowing, for example, users to purchase products online or to log into reserved areas).

"Analytics cookies" can be equated to technical cookies insofar as they are used directly by the website manager to collect information, in aggregate form, on the number of users and how they visit the website. Functional cookies allow users to navigate according to a series of criteria selected (e.g. language, products to be purchased) in order to improve the quality of the service provided to the User.

Another type of cookies is the so-called "Flash Cookies" (Local Shared Objects). They are used within Adobe Flash Player to display content, such as video clips or animations, in order to remember settings and preferences. Flash cookies are stored on the user's device, but are managed through a different interface than the one provided by the browser used.

The Adobe website contains information on how to remove or disable Flash cookies related to a specific domain.

The user's prior consent is not required to install these cookies, although it remains mandatory to provide information pursuant to article 13 of the Code, which the site manager, if it only uses these devices, may provide in the manner it deems most appropriate.

Profiling cookies

Profiling cookies allow creating user profiles and are used to send advertising messages in line with the preferences shown by the User during navigation. Due to the highly invasive nature of these cookies vis-à-vis users’ private sphere, European and Italian legislation requires users to be informed appropriately on their use so that they can give their valid consent.

They are referred to in article 122 of the Code which provides that "storing information, or accessing information that is already stored, in the terminal equipment of a contracting party or user shall only be permitted on condition that the contracting party or user has given his/her consent after being informed in accordance with the simplified methods set forth in article 13, paragraph 3" (article 122, paragraph 1 of the Code).



The exact nature of some cookies (which, under certain conditions, could be considered "profiling") may in the future be reconsidered based on the evolution in the interpretation of the directives of the Authority. In this case, this information will be updated accordingly and any further obligations that may be required will be completed.


Cookies have a duration that is determined by the expiration date, or by a specific action such as closing the browser, set at the time of installation. Cookies can be:

•     temporary or session (session cookies) - they are used to store temporary information, to link the actions performed during a specific session and are removed from the user's computer when the browser is closed;

•     permanent (persistent cookies) - they are used to store information, such as the login name and password, in order to avoid the user having to re-enter them each time they visit a specific site. These remain stored on the computer, even after the user has closed the browser.


In most browsers, cookies are enabled by default, but users can decide whether or not to accept them using the browser settings.

If the user has already consented but wants to change the cookie permissions, they can do so by deleting them through the browser, as indicated below, otherwise the cookies already installed will not be removed. In particular, please note that it is not possible to control third-party cookies in any way, so if the consent has already been given, it is necessary to delete cookies through the browser (dedicated section) or to send an opt-out request directly to the third party.

For more information, please visit the following websites:





For more detailed information on how to disable cookies, below is a list of links for configuring some of the most popular browsers. If none of the browsers listed is being used, select "cookies" in the Guide of the browser in use.

•     Microsoft Windows Explorer:

•     Microsoft Edge

•     Google Chrome:

•     Mozilla Firefox:

•     Apple Safari:

•     Opera Software:

It is also possible to delete all cookies installed in the cookies folder of the browsers used. Each browser has different procedures for managing the settings, see the Help Guide of the browser in use to find out how to change the settings and the address of the directory containing the cookies.